Microsurgery is used primarily in infertility treatment for the correction of conditions which cause the fallopian tubes to be blocked, displaced or scarred. Microsurgery refers to the use of a surgical microscope to magnify any small organ sufficiently to enable the surgeon to see it well in order to work with it. It requires the use of specialized instruments, specialized sutures, specialized training, and of course, a specialized microscope.
If the semen analysis indicates that there is a potential male factor problem, the male may be referred to a board‐certified urologist for an exam and infertility work‐up. In some cases, the urologist will find a varicocele, which is a varicose vein or veins above the testes. The presence of this condition can cause impaired sperm production or function. The urologist can surgically correct the varicocele by removing the vein, often resulting in improved sperm production or function. This procedure is usually performed at an out‐patient surgical center via a small groin incision, and no overnight hospital stay is required.